Humulin, a form of human insulin produced by bacteria, was the first genetically engineered product that was granted approval for human use and subsequently marketed to the public. The human insulin technology was created by a bioengineering company named Genentech and then licensed to Eli Lilly, where it was named “Humulin”.
History, research, and legislation concerning genetically modified organisms
In the Supreme Court Case of Diamond v. Chakrabarty in 1980, it was ruled that life forms that had been altered genetically could be patented. The genetic engineer Ananda Mohan Chakrabarty created a bacterium with the capability of breaking down crude oil. Chakrabarty intended to use this bacterium to aid in the cleaning of oil spills. At the time of his discovery Chakrabarty was working at General Electric. GE decided to fill out a patent application form listing Chakrabarty as the inventor, but the form was denied because there were no defining laws stating that you could patent living organisms. In a final decision the court ruled in Chakrabarty’s favor, stating that, “the fact that micro-organisms are alive is without legal significance for purposes of the patent law.”
Recombinant DNA Technology is a type of genetic engineering in which genetic material from one organism is artificially introduced into the genome of another organism and then replicated and expressed by that other organism. The experiment that validated this discovery involved the extracting of two separate genes of E. coli, both which were resistant to a different type of antibiotic. These genes were combined and inserted into a separate E. coli cell. The cell then became resistant to both forms of antibiotic.
Francis Crick and James Watson, with the help of Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins, were able to build an accurate model of the structure of DNA for the first time using x-ray diffraction images of DNA. The structure they built was in the shape of a double helix. This discovery would eventually give scientists the ability to identify and splice genes from one type of organism into the DNA of another.
At Knews.co, our mission is to make it easier to understand the most important issues in the news. To achieve this we are curating historical facts, research, data, legislation, and other credible information from around the web into a platform that makes the info more digestible. To ensure diverse perspectives are included, we are organizing advisory panels of people that are academic experts and/or that have been directly involved in the topic area. To ensure we are addressing the questions that the public wants answered, we are launching a campaign to ask what those questions are. We believe in cutting through the noise to find the truth. We believe the future success of humanity relies on a better understanding of the people and the world around us.
*We will only email in regards to your interest in this topic. We will not misuse your email address or send unrelated emails. If you would like to receive additional emails about Knews.co as a whole, please add yourself here. Thank you for supporting Knews.co and this very important topic.